• The authors:
    Galina A. Cherednichenko
  • Issue: July 24-26th, 2019
  • Pages: 634-640
  • URL:
  • DOI:

Abstract. Educational tracks of youth between successive levels of
education system, from the basic to the higher one, is an important
component of educational mobility processes. Their study on the basis of
state statistics in the dynamics of two decades is the objective of the author.
She has calculated and analyzed a number of relevant indicators from the
website of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia (which are
published since 2014 as raw data) and earlier materials that were officially
provided by the Federal State Statistics Service.
The evaluation is focused on the changes in the enrollment in Basic and
Secondary Schools (BS, SS) and subsequent distribution of students across
educational tracks; enrollment in Secondary Vocational Education (SVE):
mid-level specialist (MLSP) and skilled worker programs (SWP),
distribution of students across modes of study and educational attainment at
admission; enrollment in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) across modes
of study, types of HEI ownership and educational attainment at admission to
full-time and part-time classes. The data on the number of relevant age
cohorts inform the analysis.
The evolution of educational tracks of youth and dynamics of number of
students at all levels of education developed under the influence of the
expansion of higher education and the demographic factor: the growth in the
number of cohorts of relevant ages’ young people until the late 2000s and
then their sharp decline.
The first bifurcation of tracks occurs after graduation from BS, and it
determines future paths of youth socially more fundamentally than a
distribution after graduation from SS. The proportion of youth who, after
BS, continued their studies at secondary one, was steadily decreasing (now
DOI: 10.22363/09669-2019-634-640
it is half of the contingent); the share of those enrolled in MLSP has tripled;
the share of people going to study in SWP was halved; very few people
immediately entered the labor market.
The track “BS – MLSP – HEI” was widely spread, which occurred in
response to an introduction to SS in 2009 of the complex state exam, which
opens access to HEI. An MLSP diploma allowed to enter higher education
without this exam. There was a selection in SS and reduction in the number
of students, which led to a significant change in the distribution of
graduates: the proportion of students enrolled at HEI increased by 1,5 times
and reached ¾, while the share of those who went to SVE decreased to the
same extent and equaled 1/5.
Educational tracks leading to higher education are diverse, which is
determined by the differentiation of HEIs structure and dynamics of
characteristics of learning. Reaching the maximum number of admissions in
the late 2000s was largely ensured by the growth of part-time education: its
share began to prevail over full-time and only by 2017 the number of fulltime studies over part-time one was restored. Applicants for full-time and
part-time studies vary greatly according to the level of education they come
to HEI. The predominant part of the full-time steadily accounted for
graduates of this year’s SS. Individuals with the formation of SVE-MLSP
prevailed among the part-time (up to 60% today); influx of people with the
formation of SVE-SWP increased; the proportion of SS graduates, mainly
from previous years, decreased from one third to 1/5. The likelihood of
getting a state-funded or self-paying seat also affects educational tracks. The
share of private HEIs, generally small, increased by the end of the 2000s,
now it has decreased to 1/7 of the admission. The share of self-paying seats
in state HEIs has grown (from 2/5 to more than half of admission). In
general, almost 2/3 of young people (half before) go to study for a fee.
Keywords: Educational tracks, levels of education

Galina A. Cherednichenko
Institute of Sociology FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia,
ORCID ID: 0000-0002-8005-9146

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