“WHYDO GIRLS SHOOT HIGHER THAN BOYS?”: LINKING STRUCTURAL OPPORTUNITIES AND GENDER IDEOLOGY IN THE REVERSED GENDER GAP OF EDUCATIONAL EXPECTATIONS

  • The authors:
    Francisco Olivos
  • Issue: July 24-26th, 2019
  • Pages: 392-397
  • Section: INSTITUTE OF SCIENTIFIC LEADERSHIP: CHALLENGES OF ACADEMIC CAPITALISM
  • URL: http://conference-ifl.rudn.ru/392-397/
  • DOI:
    10.22363/09669-2019-392-397

Abstract. Cross-national studies have shown consistently that girls have
higher educational expectations than boys. The literature has provided
macro and micro level explanations for this phenomenon. Country-level
indicators such as gender inequality and the rate of female enrollment in
tertiary education have been significant predictors of higher educational
expectations for girls than boys. On the other hand, psychosocial studies
have found a significant mediation of gender attitudes on the formation of
educational expectations for girls. However, the interaction of structural
opportunities and individual gender ideology has not been addressed. By
using data from the second wave of the International Civic and Citizenship
Study 2016 (N = 86,803) of eighth and ninth graders from 22 countries, this
study aims to understand why girls have higher expectations for completing
college than boys, considering the interplay of micro and macro-level
predictors. Overall, the results indicate that girls are more likely than boys
to hold expectations for completing tertiary education (OR = 1.72).
Mediation analysis suggests that an important proportion of this effect is
mediated by individual gender attitudes (69%). Contrary to the literature,
gender equality at country-level reduces the pro-girls gender gap. Moreover,
the interaction between individual gender attitudes and structural conditions
suggests that, even for highly equalitarian countries, individual attitudes
against gender equity offset the effect of macro-level conditions.
Additionally, this analysis addresses issues of small sample of countries in
multilevel modeling overlooked by previous studies. The study of the
reversed gender gap in educational expectations will shed lights on fields
where pro-male differences remain.
Keywords: gender, inequality, educational expectations, gender ideology

Francisco Olivos
The Chinese University of Hong Kong, e-mail: fjolivos@link.cuhk.edu.hk
ORCID ID: 0000-0001-6395-6593

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