DISCURSIVE TECHNIQUES NEGATIVITY IMAGE OF RUSSIA IN THE WESTERN MEDIA

  • The authors:
    Lilia V. Moiseenko
  • Issue: July 24-26th, 2019
  • Pages: 322-329
  • Section: PROBLEMS OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION AND TRANSLATION
  • URL: http://conference-ifl.rudn.ru/322-329/
  • DOI:
    10.22363/09669-2019-322-329

Abstract. The article discusses the discursive techniques of negativity the
image of Russia and the Russians – deconstructing stereotypes, changing the
pragmatic focus, and intentional news framing.
Modern Western discursive practices and, in particular, the mass media,
present a far from objectivity, often negative and hostile image of Russia
and Russians, due to non-linguistic factors. From a linguistic point of view,
it is of interest to systematize the means of verbal expression and semantic
content of Russia’s image and the Russian nation in the space of a foreign
(western) community.
The study of the country’s image involves the analysis of its perception, both
by its citizens and by representatives of other states. The attitude of the
citizens of a country depends on its reputation. If citizens do not trust their
government, they will not serve it in good faith.
The most important characteristic of image communication is the factor of
the target audience. Different audiences need different standards for the
communication channel. The message, formulated for different types of
audiences, may differ in content (set of facts) or specific techniques.
When analyzing images in media texts, a discursive approach is used. The
analysis of media discourse, on the one hand, is aimed at isolating the
essential elements of the process of creating and transmitting meanings in
the course of mass communication and, on the other hand, at determining
the role of the media context in meaning formation.
The purpose of this article is to establish linguistic means in the formation
of the modern media image of Russia and Russians in the Spanish-language
media.
In this study, analysis of newspaper articles is carried out at the lexicalgrammatical and syntactic levels within the framework of two models: the
“image of Russia” and the “media image.” The first concept is formed
historically in the public consciousness of other nation, and the second one
is created in a particular media system.
As a result of constant analysis of Russia’s image by Western media,
linguists and journalists can observe the evolution of this image in
diachrony.
322
DOI: 10.22363/09669-2019-322-329
The author considers such metaphorical models of the political life of
Russia as monarchic, anthropomorphic, zoomorphic, and mechanical.
The strengthening of negative elements in the structure of Russia’s image is
connected with the latest political events.
The author used the Spanish-language media (el Mundo, el País, ABC) as
an empirical material and applied not only discourse analysis but lexical,
semantic, and linguistic stylistic analysis.
Articles’ selection of the newspaper Las Provincias for 2006–2014 devoted
to Russia (4387) identifies three main headings: “international events”
(1940), sports (698), and regional news (439).
The structure of the image of Russia in the mass media includes such
components as the internal political image, the external political image, the
image of the state’s head, the image of the Russian history.
The author of the article examines in detail the lexical and semantic
compatibility of the adjective Ruso – Russian – in Spanish, clearly describes
concepts related to the everyday consciousness of the Spanish language
personality with Russia, presents lexemes with negative axiological content,
demonstrate particular dynamics of ethnocultural stereotypes about Russia.
After analyzing the image of Russia in two aspects: 1) the “image of Russia”
and 2) the “media image,” it can be concluded that the Spanish media is
most interested in Russia as a state in terms of its foreign and domestic
policy. Undoubtedly, in the era of globalization and the development of
international relations, the state policy comes to the fore. In this way, a
change in the pragmatic focus contributes to the negativity of the media
image of Russia.
Keywords: negative media image of Russia; stereotypes; the change of the
pragmatic focus; news framing.

Lilia V. Moiseenko
Moscow State Linguistic University, Moscow, Russia,
e-mail: liliamoiseenko@gmail.com
ORCID ID: 0000-0001-7703-2965

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