DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN CAPITAL OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE COMPETENCE APPROACH

  • The authors:
    Alexandr G. Bermus
  • Issue: July 24-26th, 2019
  • Pages: 179-187
  • Section: SOCIAL CAPITAL AND PRESTIGE OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION
  • URL: http://conference-ifl.rudn.ru/179-187/
  • DOI:
    10.22363/09669-2019-179-187

Abstract. Starting from the 90s of the 20th century, all major educational
institutions are in search of a new conceptual apparatus of development
management. Historically, the first attempts were to adapt the potential of
program-targeted management and methodological issues (in the sense of
the Moscow Methodological Circle, G. P. Schedrovitsky) to developmental
processes. Despite the fact that most educational institutions acquired
concepts and development programs, their influence on everyday practice
remained extremely insignificant.
In the 2000s, emphasis was placed on the concept of modernizing education,
operating with ideas of quality and efficiency, which ultimately led to the
formalism of licensing and accreditation procedures and further
stratification ofeducational institutions in their development opportunities.
The current stage of development is characterized by a heightened interest
in various “flexible methodologies” of development, such as Agile, Scrum,
Kanban, attempts to build holistic ecological systems of innovations, and
active internationalization of educational activities. All these areas represent
a fairly diverse and differentiated package of activities requiring some kind
of conceptual unity and justification. In this context the concept of “human
capital” appears to be a meaningful generalization of many ideas of social,
cultural capital, human development indexes, etc.
From this point of view, the main function of the education system is to
increase human capital, and the means are the regular redesign of
educational institutions in order to achieve their maximum performance. A
special circumstance of the implementation of the concept of human capital
growth in relation to educational institutions is the fact that over the past
two decades the competence approach has become the basis of the state
system of educational standards. Both advantages and disadvantages of the
competence-based approach are related to this: it seems to be a more
flexible tool for determining the requirements for the result of education. On
the other hand, in the absence of a systemic model of competencies and
processes of their formation, competence interpretation is given through sets
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DOI: 10.22363/09669-2019-179-187
of individual knowledge and skills, which, in fact, eliminates the differences
between competence and knowledge approaches.
Thus, it gives rise to any new methodology, which is based at the ideas of P.
Bourdier such as “social field”, “discourses”, “practices” and “capital”. In
our study, educational situation can be modeled by a three-level construct,
the upper level of which is defined by competences and their interpretations,
the middle level by social and humanitarian practices, and the lower level by
the current distribution of human capital.
So, this allows us to develop analyzing and modernizing educational
institutions procedures, among them:
1. Clustering competences and modularizing content. Competences can be
integrated around the socio-humanitarian and educational practices within
which they are created, as well as by the types of capital to which they
correspond. As a result, educational modules emerge that include not only
sets of related competencies, but also a description of practices, resources,
and the nature of the development of human capital in them.
2. Diagnosis of performance quality and breaks. From the point of view of
the three-aspect concept of educational institutions, the main problems are
caused by gaps between symbolic, practical and resource bases. Thus, a
double projection arises: competences to practice, and practices to capitals,
where any violations of connectivity and correspondences predetermine the
appearance of problems.
3. Dual representation of the resource policy. An increase in a resource, as
well as any development of human capital in educational institutions, must
be represented twice: as changes in the system of status and competences
and as changes in the system of practices. Only under these conditions,
human development will be sustainable, and investments in this process will
be effective.
Keywords: human capital, cultural capital, social capital, educational
standard, competence-based education

Alexandr G. Bermus
Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia,
e-mail: bermous@sfedu.ru
ORCID ID: 0000-0002-9342-6339

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